With the advancement of science and technology and the transformation of people's consumption concepts, the public's requirements for electronic products are gradually becoming thinner, more fashionable, and more versatile. As the performance of electronic products becomes more and more powerful, integration and assembly density will continue to increase, resulting in a sharp increase in power consumption and heat generation. According to statistics, electronic component failures caused by heat concentration account for 55% of the total failure rate. Therefore, heat treatment technology is an important factor to be considered in electronic products.
Traditional thermal conductive materials are mainly metal materials, but metal materials have high density and high expansion coefficient. When high thermal conductivity is required, they cannot meet the requirements of use. The thermally conductive graphite sheet has a unique grain orientation and can conduct heat evenly in two directions. At present, most smart phones use graphite sheet heat dissipation solutions, but as the heat dissipation requirements of electronic devices increase, the heat conduction of single-layer or double-layer graphite sheets cannot meet higher heat dissipation requirements.
The high speed and low latency of the 5G era bring us a better experience, but electronic products will consume more power and generate more heat. Therefore, the thermal and heat dissipation capabilities of consumer electronics have become the key to a stable product foothold One of the technologies. On the other hand, in the 5G era, the integrated functions of electronic devices have gradually increased and become more complicated, while the size of the device itself has been continuously reduced, which puts forward higher requirements for the heat treatment technology of electronic devices. Therefore, one of the major difficulties in developing 5G electronic equipment is to solve the heat dissipation problem.
5G mobile phones require faster transmission speeds, MIMO technology increases the number of antennas, and the number of frequency bands that the RF front-end needs to support has greatly increased. At the same time, with the increase in the difficulty of high-frequency signal processing, the performance requirements of the system's radio frequency components have also been greatly improved. New applications such as carrier aggregation and MIMO technology require technical updates for each radio frequency device. 4G mobile phone antennas are mainly 2*2 MIMO, while 5G uses more 4*4 MIMO antenna schemes to improve 5G transmission speed. However, a large amount of heat is generated during high-speed transmission. Therefore, how to reduce the temperature increased during transmission and reduce the loss of mobile phone performance is one of the challenges of developing 5G mobile phones.
The ordinary filter of 5G mobile phone is very sensitive to temperature. If the external temperature environment changes, the performance of the filter will drop sharply. Compared with 4G mobile phones, with the increase in the number of frequency bands, the demand for RF filter components in 5G mobile phones also increases, and the requirements for temperature processing also increase.
Graphene, Heat Pipe and Heating Plate Heat Dissipation Technology Rises
The main way to dissipate heat on the market is to use multilayer graphite sheets. As we all know, the higher the thermal conductivity, the better the heat diffusion. The data shows that a good thermal conductivity of graphite sheets can reach 1500 W/mk to 1500 W/mk, while the thermal conductivity of general pure copper is 380 W/mk. It can be seen that the thermal conductivity of graphite is better than that of general metal materials. Graphite provides the maximum effective surface area on which heat is effectively transferred and taken away. In other words, graphite can quickly reduce the temperature of the heating element when the electronic product is working through its excellent thermal conductivity, and uniform the overall temperature of the product. To expand the heat dissipation surface area, thereby reducing the temperature of the entire electronic product, and improving the working stability and life of the electronic product. The components that use graphite sheets in smart phones include CPU, battery, wireless charging, antenna.
The Thermal Conductivity of Heat Pipe and Uniform Temperature Plate Is Higher Than Other Solutions
Comparing the thermal conductivity of different materials, it is found that the thermal conductivity of the heat pipe and the uniform temperature plate is nearly ten times that of the graphite material. Among the heat pipe and the uniform temperature plate, the thermal conductivity of the uniform temperature plate is higher. Therefore, the advantages of heat pipes and uniform temperature plates are more obvious. In addition, the heat pipe belongs to one-dimensional linear heat conduction, while the vacuum chamber soaking plate provides two-dimensional conduction space, so the efficiency is higher. Specifically, after the heat is absorbed by the liquid at the bottom of the vacuum chamber, it is evaporated and diffused into the vacuum chamber, conducts the heat to the heat sink, and then condenses into liquid back to the bottom. This heat dissipation principle is similar to the evaporation and condensation process of refrigerator air conditioners.
The upstream raw material market for graphite film and graphite flakes is very concentrated. The main raw material upstream of the high thermal conductivity graphite film is polyimide, the auxiliary materials are tape, protective film, and the main manufacturing equipment is carbonization furnace, and die cutting machine. Among them, polyimide is a high-performance insulating material, and the industry has high technical barriers. There are few manufacturers in the world that can produce high-performance polyimide. The main representatives are DuPont of the United States, Kaneka of Japan and SKPI of South Korea.
The heat dissipation technology of uniform temperature plate and heat pipe will develop in the direction of lighter, thinner and more efficient in the future
In the process of electronic equipment pursuing fashion, thinness and lightness have become an inevitable topic. Thinner equipment means that thinner heat pipes and uniform temperature plates are required. As the main material of heat pipes, copper requires a certain thickness to maintain the shape, but the space for consumer electronics is limited. Therefore, balancing the relationship between heat pipes and equipment has become the focus of industry development. Currently, some Japanese and domestic companies are working hard to develop ultra-thin heat pipes for smart phones. In the future, with the emergence of high-power products and the digital transformation of the industry, the market's demand for high-efficiency heat pipes and soaking plates will rise sharply. At the same time, more production requirements will be put forward, which will promote better quality and more efficient heat dissipation products.
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