China's biodiesel industry is mainly composed of three links: upstream raw material supply, midstream R&D and production, and downstream sales and application. The upstream market participants in the biodiesel industry are the providers of raw materials for biodiesel production, including various feedstocks, methanol, production equipment; the main body of the midstream is the research and development and production enterprises of various types of biodiesel; downstream involves the end consumption and application of biodiesel.
Different Countries Have Different Raw Materials, And China Mainly Uses Waste Oil
Biodiesel feedstocks are mainly divided into three categories, showing obvious regional differences. The sources of biodiesel are diverse, and the raw materials are divided into three main categories: one is traditional oils such as soybean oil and rapeseed oil; the other is palm oil produced from palm fruits of palm trees; and the third is waste oil. Because different countries have obvious resource cultural differences and crop differences, the global biodiesel is relatively concentrated, and the production of raw materials differ significantly. In 2019, the world's top four biodiesel producers are Indonesia, which is mainly palm oil, the United States, which is mainly soybeans, Brazil, which is mainly soybeans, and Germany, which is mainly rapeseed, accounting for 51% of the total.
China has abundant biodiesel raw material resources. More than 1,500 kinds of oil crops have been identified, 150 of which have an oil content of more than 40%. There are also nearly 10 shrubs that can be used as raw materials for biodiesel. There are 76 varieties of vegetable oil for diesel. However, affected by China's basic national conditions and market supply and demand, most of the raw material oils directly obtained from plants and animals are expensive, and more are sold directly as food oils or used in food production. At present, in the Chinese raw oil market, the price of peanut oil is about 9,000 yuan/ton, and the price of animal oil is about 8,000 yuan/ton, while the price of traditional mineral oil is only 5,600 to 5,700 yuan/ton. Vegetable oil and animal oil are used. The economic efficiency of biodiesel production is low, so the raw materials used by most Chinese biodiesel companies are waste oils such as waste oil and water oil.
As a populous country with a rich food culture, China has abundant sources of waste fats, which can be mainly reflected in the following three data. China's consumption of edible oil is huge, with an average annual consumption of over 25 million tons, of which 10% to 15% are wasted in various forms during use, corresponding to a scale of about 3 million tons of waste oil; China has nearly 1.5 million tons per year. 100 million tons of domestic waste, 50% of which is kitchen and kitchen waste, with an oil content of 7.5%-8.0%, corresponding to a waste oil scale of nearly 6 million tons; the China Development and Reform Commission survey data shows that the only statistically available waste oil in China has reached the scale 400,000 tons/year, there are also various other forms of waste grease that have not been properly treated and collected. The scale of China's waste oils and fats is huge, but due to the problem of resource fragmentation and related recycling institutions, the utilization efficiency of China's waste oils and fats has not been effectively improved, and the acquisition of upstream raw materials is still restricting the development of midstream manufacturers.
Policy Supervision Is Good for the Standardized Development of the Waste Oil Industry Chain
In the early days, national supervision was not perfect, and illegal traders often used waste oil to simply process and return to the table and feed areas to make profits. In recent years, the state has vigorously cracked down on the return of waste oil to the dining table, strengthened supervision of the waste oil recycling industry chain, continuously improved tracking and supervision, and continuously guided the domestic waste oil industry chain to gradually become normalized while rectifying illegal acts. development of. At present, government agencies continue to track the waste oil collection, purification treatment, and product processing, prompting the gradual introduction of waste oil into formal applications.
The Downstream Market Is Extensive, And the Industry Pattern Is Expected to Be Further Concentrated
In addition to various fuel industries, the downstream application fields of the biodiesel industry also include some chemical industries. Nearly 20% of biodiesel in the Chinese market is used in the processing and production of bio-ester plasticizers and other chemical products. It is widely used in the processing of various PVC products and is favored in the field of environmental protection and health products.
The development of China's biodiesel industry is still in the stage of rectification and adjustment, where the technological level and product quality of enterprises are uneven. There are nearly 150 industrial and commercial registered enterprises in China's biodiesel industry, and there are more than ten factories under construction, most of which are private enterprises. Due to the gap in production capacity, Chinese biodiesel operating companies can be divided into three main echelons. The first echelon is the first echelon with international standard biodiesel production capacity; The second echelon mainly produces biodiesel and sells it to chemical companies. Most of the companies in this echelon are small and medium-sized enterprises, with fatty acid alcohols as the main Products; The third tier has unstable production quality. There are a large number of such companies, and their technical level is limited. Subject to the severe market conditions of the Chinese biodiesel industry, most of them are forced to withdraw from market competition.
In the course of the development of the biodiesel industry, independent R&D and innovation have been leading the steady progress of China's biodiesel industry. At present, China's biodiesel industry has reached the international advanced level in terms of products, technology, and equipment. It is at the international leading level in the production of biodiesel from low-quality waste oil, acidified oil, and low-freezing point biodiesel. However, to form a complete industrial chain, it is necessary to strengthen the top-level design and coordinate multiple social relations.
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