In China's air pollution, the main source of nitrogen oxides is large diesel vehicles, which is one of the main causes of pollution caused by photochemical smog containing toxic ozone near the ground. Therefore, to alleviate air pollution, the first problem to be solved is exhaust emissions.
At present, the main measures to control vehicle exhaust emissions include three types, including pre-flight measures, in-flight measures, and post-flight measures. The pre-flight and in-flight measures are technically difficult and have limited emission reduction effects. The post-flight measures, the main way, include air injection and oxidation.
The Catalyst Is the Main Part of the Post-Processing, And the Catalyst Is the Core of the Catalyst
The tail gas catalyst mainly produces two types of reactions: oxidation catalysis and reduction catalysis. The purpose of oxidation catalysis is to make CO, HC, and soluble organic components that are not fully burnt react and convert to CO2 and H2O under oxygen-rich conditions; reduction catalysis aims to the remaining carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides are catalytically reduced to carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen.
The automobile exhaust gas purification catalyst is mainly composed of a catalyst and a metal shell, and the catalyst is the core of it. It is mainly composed of four parts: the precious metal active component, the catalyst carrier, the auxiliary agent, and the coating; the precious metal active component is the core part of the catalyst. It mainly plays a catalytic role, the carrier provides effective surface area and pore structure, the coating is used to increase the surface area, and the auxiliary agent is used to assist the catalyst to perform better.
Honeycomb Ceramic as the Main Carrier
The automobile exhaust catalyst carrier plays a role in saving active components, among which the honeycomb carrier is the current mainstream. The honeycomb ceramic industry is an oligopoly industry, in which Corning and NGK have a market share of up to 90%. With the implementation of National VI and the improvement of material localization requirements, domestic companies are expected to seize more shares in the honeycomb ceramic market.
Alumina Is the Main Coating, And Metal Oxides Are Used as Catalyst Additives
The coating is a composite powder material composed of one or more refractory inorganic oxides containing active components to increase the surface area. The inorganic oxide type and coating process of the coating have a non-negligible effect on the performance of the catalyst. At present, most coatings use alumina.
Catalytic promoters are mainly rare earth metal oxides and alkali metal oxides, etc., which can be added to the coating or as a part of the active component to improve the mechanical strength and thermal stability of the coating, extend the service life of the catalyst, and interact with precious metals. Produce a synergistic effect and reduce the ignition temperature of the catalyst.
Active Components: Precious Metals and Common Metals
The active component is the core part of the catalyst, which is mainly supported on the active coating material and can be divided into three types of noble metals, common metals, and metal oxides. At present, precious metals are the most widely used. The disadvantages of precious metal catalysts are that they are expensive, have strict requirements on the air-fuel ratio of the engine, and are prone to lead and sulfur poisoning. In addition, common metal catalysts such as copper, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese also have an oxidation catalytic effect on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, but they have not been obtained due to their high ignition temperature, poor thermal stability, poor activity, and easy poisoning.
Enhancing the Environmental Awareness of the Automotive Industry Is the Guarantee for the Development of Exhaust Catalysis
The global automotive industry is developing steadily, providing support for the exhaust gas catalysis market. The exhaust gas catalysis industry is directly linked to the downstream automobile industry. According to statistics, the global automotive market will continue to maintain steady growth in the future. The average annual growth rate of light vehicles will remain at about 3.3%, and the compound growth rate of heavy-duty trucks that rely more on exhaust catalysts will reach 9.2%. Enhancing the environmental awareness of the automotive industry is the guarantee for the development of exhaust catalysis.
National VI Standards Greatly Increase the Amount of Exhaust Gas Catalytic Materials
Different types of automobile exhaust catalytic treatment technology routes are different at each stage. In the National Phase VI, catalytic converters need to be installed. Gasoline vehicles need to be equipped with DPF catalytic converters, and diesel vehicles need to be equipped with DOC, DPF, and ASC catalytic converters. The addition of catalytic converters will also increase the amount of exhaust catalytic materials.
The amount of honeycomb ceramics has increased significantly. In the sixth stage of China, the need to install a catalytic converter means that the amount of supporting honeycomb ceramic carriers will also increase significantly. In 2019, the demand for automotive exhaust catalyst carriers is approximately 81.4 million liters. Under the National VI standard, gasoline vehicles need to be equipped with GPF, which doubles the volume, and the demand for catalyst carriers is increased to 3 liters/unit. Diesel vehicles are equipped with DOC, DPF, and ASC, and the demand for catalyst carriers is increased to 25 liters/unit. If the average output of gasoline and diesel in the previous five years is calculated to be 23.12 million units and 2.89 million diesel vehicles, under the assumption of neutral conditions, the demand for exhaust catalyst carriers in China's automobile industry will reach 140.17 million liters in 2022.
The amount of alumina increased significantly. Under the National VI standard, alumina is used in three-way catalytic converters and GPF catalytic converters for gasoline vehicles, and DOC and DPF catalytic converters for diesel vehicles. In the National Sixth Standard, except for the SCR and ASC catalytic converters of diesel vehicles, all other catalytic converters must use alumina as the carrier, and the installation of the catalytic converter drives the demand for alumina.
The gradual deepening of the National Sixth Standard will promote the further upgrade of the fuel vehicle exhaust catalytic system, which will set off a wave in the relevant exhaust catalytic material market.
Automotive Catalytic Converters
Selective Catalytic Reduction for Diesel Commercial Vehicles
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