The power battery system is the core energy source that provides power for new energy vehicles and is one of the most important components of new energy vehicles. The power battery system is mainly composed of battery modules, electrical systems, thermal management systems, housings, and battery management system components. The battery module, the electrical system, the thermal management system, and the battery management system are packaged through the casing to form the main body of the power battery system.
Battery Case Is A Key Component of New Energy Vehicles
As the carrier of the battery module, the power battery system shell plays an important role in the stable operation and safety protection of the battery module. It can not only ensure the strength, rigidity, and collision safety requirements but also meet the design requirements of the IP67 protection level of electrical equipment enclosures. Many electric vehicle platforms specially developed by vehicle manufacturers adopt a floor-platform battery system layout, which integrates the battery shell and the body floor into one body, which changes the traditional body shape and makes the battery shell part of the body, which affects the strength and rigidity of the body. And collision safety has a greater impact. Therefore, the battery case is usually considered to be a component of the battery pack of a new energy vehicle, but it is related to the body system and electrical safety and is a key component of the new energy vehicle.
As a structural part, the battery case has a manufacturing process similar to that of the main body and chassis structural parts. At the same time, it will be further improved in the application of new materials and new processes. As a new component brought by the new energy power system, it has brought technological upgrades to traditional manufacturing. And new markets will increase.
The Growth of the New Energy Vehicle Market Drives the Development of the Battery Box Industry
The volume of pure electric vehicles continues to increase, and the market for battery boxes for new energy vehicles is rapidly expanding. In 2019, China's new energy passenger vehicle sales were 1.06 million. According to relevant policy documents, it is reasonable to assume that China's new energy passenger vehicle sales will reach 5.8 million in 2025, of which pure electric vehicles account for 85%, or 4.93 million. Assuming that by 2025, overseas sales of new energy electric vehicles will be 10.05 million, and global sales of pure electric vehicles will be 14.98 million. In addition, the penetration rate of aluminum alloy battery boxes and brackets is maintained at 100%. It is estimated that by 2022, the market space of new energy passenger car battery boxes in China and the world will be about 5.63 billion yuan and 15.83 billion yuan.
At present, the penetration rate of domestic new energy passenger vehicles is increasing year by year, but the overall penetration rate is not high, and there is still a lot of room for growth. Under the leadership of the rapid development of new energy vehicles, electrification has become the main trend of global automobile development. Looking forward to the next few decades, the sales of new energy vehicles, mainly pure electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, will continue to maintain a relatively high growth rate, thereby driving the development of the battery box industry.
The Urgent Need for Lightweight Battery Shells
Long cruising range is an important indicator pursued by electric vehicles. In the current situation where the increase of battery energy density encounters a major bottleneck, increasing the capacity of the battery pack is the most convenient and efficient way to increase the cruising range. However, the increase in battery packs directly leads to an increase in the weight of the vehicle, which increases the energy consumption of vehicle operation and affects the performance of the vehicle product. Therefore, the need for the lightweight of new energy vehicles is more urgent than that of traditional fuel vehicles, and weight reduction of power battery systems is also an important issue for new energy vehicle companies.
Aluminum Alloy Has Become the Mainstream Technology Route for Battery Shells
Aluminum alloy has become the mainstream trend of automobile lightweight. Although the cost of aluminum alloy is relatively high, it has been used in many industries due to its excellent workability, corrosion resistance, and recyclability, and its application in the automotive field continues to gain popularity. Aluminum alloys are also widely used in battery housing products, aluminum plates. The frame formed by custom welded extruded profiles can provide sufficient rigidity and strength, and the aluminum plate stamping part is used as a cover plate to combine with the frame to seal the battery system.
Currently, there are three main types of companies producing battery boxes for new energy vehicles. The first category is an independent third-party company that supplies battery box products to vehicle companies and is also the main supplier of new energy vehicle battery boxes, including comprehensive auto parts suppliers, such as Germany Benteler and its joint ventures, and suppliers with production capacity for aluminum alloy products; the second category is vehicle companies with battery box production capacity, representative companies such as BYD; the third category is companies engaged in the aluminum industry.
As a heavy asset manufacturing industry, battery boxes are economically low for large-scale self-distribution, which are mainly supplied by third parties. Relying on the domestically huge consumer market, local power battery system shell companies are expected to lead international suppliers in market development and technology research and development.
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